Category: ciotygkhq

Psychologists uncover a prototypical vision of ‘wisdom’ shared across North American cultures

first_imgLinkedIn Email Pinterest The authors examined cultural-historical exemplars, provided by 209 Canadians and Americans in open-ended responses to a series of questions, and analyzed this research by generating three wisdom prototypes based on grouping the most prevalent examples from the first study.Over 100 different exemplars were mentioned during the study, but certain names, like Mahatma Gandhi, Jesus Christ, Abraham Lincoln, and Martin Luther King Jr., were more prevalent.Weststrate and colleagues found that the most frequently mentioned exemplars clustered into three basic “wisdom” prototypes: practical (Lincoln, Franklin), philosophical (Socrates, King Solomon), and benevolent (MLK Jr, Mother Teresa). They completed this task by utilizing data from 202 Americans, who were presented with all possible pairings of the most commonly named exemplars and asked to rate how similar they were to each other.While the benevolent and philosophical prototypes were often rated as wiser than the practical prototype, the researchers found 70% of the exemplars represented practical wisdom, 32% benevolent and 12% philosophical. Practical wisdom includes those who have insight into real-life issues and work strategically to deal with social problems.“We hope this research influences our evolving understanding of the concept of wisdom as far as psychological theories are concerned,” says Weststrate. “Wisdom is a quintessentially “human” concept, so the average person should have a good sense of what it is–their perspectives are an important source of information for psychologists to consider.”The authors remind us that no one type of wisdom is “best” and hope to conduct similar analyses across other cultures, “because the average person’s implicit theories are hugely affected by cultural factors,” says Weststrate. Further research could find other prototypes that “illuminate what people are striving for and how this differs regionally and globally.” Share on Facebookcenter_img Share Benjamin Franklin, Socrates, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa: All well-recognized names. In a recent study from Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, researchers studying Americans and Canadians found preferences for practical wisdom when people were asked to name important figures and tell stories about their wisdom.Psychologists Nic Weststrate and Michel Ferrari (University of Toronto) along with Sociologist Monika Ardelt (University of Florida) studied average people to determine how everyday people understand wisdom and uncovered a set of characteristics shared across North America that shape today’s prototypical vision of “wisdom.”“In North America, wisdom is a somewhat diverse concept–there is more than one way to be wise and each manifestation of wisdom has merits from a societal perspective,” says Weststrate. Share on Twitterlast_img read more

FDA: No antimicrobial agents in over-the-counter soap

first_imgIn a final ruling issued today, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), banned certain antimicrobial and antiseptic ingredients in over-the-counter soaps, saying they were no more effective in killing germs than plain soap and water, and that they posed health risks to the general population.”I applaud the FDA for taking this step,” said Michael Osterholm, PhD, MPH, director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), which publishes CIDRAP News.”It’s about time policy caught up with science. I hope this is a shot across the bow of the ship to any company that thinks of selling antimicrobial products to the public that have no proven benefit and real dangers to the environment.” Osterholm was an outspoken proponent of Minnesota’s 2014 ban on triclosan, an antimicrobial agent commonly used in antibacterial soaps.3 years in the makingThe ruling has been 3 years in the making. In 2013 the government agency began considering evidence that certain active antimicrobial agents, including triclosan and triclocarban, could be contributing to antimicrobial resistance and endocrine disruption. Seventeen other active ingredients are included on the ban, which only pertains to soap, and not hand sanitizing gels, foams, or wipes. It also doesn’t limit the use of these ingredients in healthcare settings.Manufacturers of soaps containing any of the 19 ingredients were asked to supply the FDA with evidence that their products were both safe and superior to those on the market that did not contain the active ingredients in question.The FDA said the manufacturers did not supply any evidence for 16 of the ingredients, but allowed for a 1-year deferment before ruling on benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, and chloroxylenol (PCMX). Soaps with these ingredients can still be sold at this time.Manufacturers have a yearThe FDA said manufacturers have 1 year to phase out or reformulate their products without the banned ingredients. “Consumers may think antibacterial washes are more effective at preventing the spread of germs, but we have no scientific evidence that they are any better than plain soap and water,” Janet Woodcock, MD, director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), said in a statement.”In fact, some data suggests that antibacterial ingredients may do more harm than good over the long-term.”See also:Sep 2 FDA news releaseMar 20, 2014, Osterholm Star Tribune editorial “Counterpoint: Antimicrobial hucksters can’t be trusted”last_img read more

WHO adds new antibiotics to essential medicines list

first_imgThe World Health Organization (WHO) today added three new antibiotics to its list of recommended medicines for every healthcare system.Based on recommendations from an expert committee, the WHO added ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, and plazomicin to its Essential Medicines List, which is updated annually. All three antibiotics target multidrug-resistant infections caused by pathogens deemed a “critical priority” by the WHO, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.The newly added antibiotics are classified as “reserve” antibiotics under the WHO’s AWaRe (Access, Watch, and Reserve) designation, developed by the agency in 2017 to guide responsible antibiotic prescribing, curb development of resistance, and ensure that antibiotics remain effective and are available when needed.The reserve group includes drugs that should be accessible but reserved for treatment of confirmed or suspected infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. They are considered “last-resort” drugs to be used when all alternatives have failed. Other antibiotics in the reserve group include colistin, polymyxin B, fosfomycin, and linezolid.In June, the WHO launched a global campaign to limit use of “watch” and “reserve” drugs, which are broader-spectrum agents and more at risk of resistance. One of the campaign’s goals is to increase the proportion of antibiotics consumed globally from the “access” category to 60%. Ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, and plazomicin are relatively new antibiotics, all having been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration within the last 5 years.Essential diagnosticsAlso today, the WHO published an updated List of Essential In Vitro Diagnostics that includes more tests for communicable and non-communicable diseases. Among the new additions are diagnostic tests to help guide appropriate antibiotic prescribing, including biochemical tests that identify the genus or species of bacteria from cultured isolates and procalcitonin tests, which monitor levels of a peptide associated with the body’s response to a bacterial infection.The updated list also includes rapid diagnostic tests for influenza, which have been linked, in some studies, to reduced antibiotic prescribing.See also:Jul 9 WHO press releaseJul 9 WHO Model List of Essential MedicinesJul 9 WHO Second Model List of Essential In Vitro DiagnosticsJun 18 CIDRAP News story, “New AWaRe tool aims to guide antibiotic use globally”last_img read more

CARICOM Institutions Collaborate on CXC Green Engineering Student Webinars

first_img Oct 6, 2020 It Is Our CXC: Let Us Work Out A Solution – Amb.… These instructive and interactive sessions are part of an ongoing collaboration between the CARICOM Secretariat and CXC, to establish a framework and build capacity for the development and promotion of renewable energy. Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance (REETA) Programme, the German international development agency, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) has supported efforts by these entities to improve the capacity and awareness of Caribbean students, on sustainable energy issues. Two Major Leaps Towards a Climate Resilient, Emission-Free… BRIDGETOWN, Barbados – The Caribbean Examinations Council® (CXC®), the Energy Unit of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat and the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CCREEE) have collaborated to further the principles of renewable energy and sustainable development through future practitioners. As you embark upon your preparation for exams, join Regional energy professionals and lecturers for an interactive session for the CAPE Green Engineering Unit 2 Syllabus, on Friday 12 June 2020 at 10 am EST. Register here: https://t.co/bTW4vNcLA5 pic.twitter.com/Qf1yGj17vg— CARICOM Energy (@CARICOMEnergy) June 8, 2020 CARICOM Formulating Energy Security Strategy You may be interested in… -End- For further information kindly contact us at +1 (246) 227-1700 or email cxcezo@cxc.org (Barbados), or for queries in Jamaica at + 1 (876) 630-5200 or email: cxcwzo@cxc. Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Oct 5, 2020 The final session will focus on Unit 2 of the programme and presenters will include Dr Devon Gardner, Programme Manager for Energy and Head of the Energy Unit of the CARICOM Secretariat, Professor Chandrabhan Sharma, Leader of the Energy Systems programme in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UWI, St Augustine and Dr Gary C. Jackson, PE, CEM, Executive Director of the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. CDF, IRENA Collaborate to Boost Low-Carbon Investments in… Engineer at Sandals Grande Antigua and Dr. Cherri-Ann Farquharson, Lecturer in the Faculty of Engineering at the UWI Mona. Day one of the online sessions will be dedicated to Unit 1 of the Green Engineering programme, with presentations by Dr. Paulette Bynoe, Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Guyana; Mr. Churchill Norbert, Chief As you embark upon your preparation for exams, join Regional energy professionals and lecturers for an interactive session for the CAPE Green Engineering Unit 1 Syllabus, Thursday 11 June at 10 am EST. Register here:https://t.co/bTW4vNcLA5 pic.twitter.com/a28dEmYMEe— CARICOM Energy (@CARICOMEnergy) June 8, 2020 These CARICOM entities will host a two-part webinar via Zoom, on Thursday 11 June and Friday, 12 June, from 10am, highlighting key areas in sustainable energy design, to support candidates preparing for Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination® (CAPE®) Green Engineering examinations in July. The online sessions will feature regional lecturers and professionals, sharing insights on content from the syllabus, in the context of current energy trends and practical applications. Oct 6, 2020 Oct 1, 2020 CXC to conduct region-wide training for teachers for CAPE’s Green Engineering SubjectKingston, JAMAICA – In efforts to build the Caribbean’s capacity in the delivery of the Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE)’s Green Engineering Syllabus, CXC will be hosting a three day boot camp in Montego Bay, Jamaica. The boot camp which scheduled for the April 4-6, 2018 will see participants from…March 28, 2018In “Antigua & Barbuda”The Bahamas signs Agreement establishing CCREEEThe Hon. Darren Henfield, Minister of Foreign Affairs of The Bahamas, signed the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CCREEE) Agreement on behalf of the Government of The Bahamas. He signed the agreement within the margins of the 41st Community Council of Ministers held at the Caribbean Community…January 22, 2018In “General”Energy centre to highlight discussions at Special Meetings of COTEDThe establishment of the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CCREEE) will straddle discussions at two Special Meetings of the Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED) that will be held in Georgetown, Guyana on Wednesday and Thursday. A Special Meeting of COTED on Energy will be convened…February 3, 2015In “Antigua & Barbuda”Share this on WhatsApplast_img read more

Nautricity, Fundy Tidal to Develop Tidal Energy Project in Nova Scotia, Canada

first_imgNautricity Ltd. and Fundy Tidal Inc. have signed an MoU to develop a 500kW tidal project in Nova Scotia, Canada’s Petit Passage.Nautricity is completing system testing of its CoRMaT and Hydro-buoy technologies at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) off the Orkney Islands in Scotland. The project at Petit Passage provides flows similar to those at the EMEC site and approach the speeds found at the FORCE site in Nova Scotia.Cameron Johnstone, CEO of Nautricity said: “This is a great platform to demonstrate how new approaches to the development of tidal energy projects can deliver benefit to both Nova Scotia and Scottish companies. The opportunity for tidal development around the world is immense, and Scotland and Nova Scotia have some of the best resources and best developed regulatory regimes anywhere.”Vince Stuart, President of Fundy Tidal stated: “We have been in discussions with Nautricity for a couple of years and are most pleased that both our companies have evolved to the stage where we are now formerly working together in the delivery of the Petit Passage project. This partnership is a concrete example of the desire of both the Scottish and Nova Scotia governments and industry to foster collaboration on marine energy developments.”Expected deployment of the turbine in Nova Scotia will be in late summer of 2015. The MoU not only facilitates the delivery of this important project, but provides for collaboration on a wide range of issues from grid connection and storage, to participating in research and development initiatives at both Scottish and Nova Scotia universities.Andrew Younger, Nova Scotia’s Minister of Energy, said: “This is an example of the kind of collaboration and partnerships we are promoting and developing between Nova Scotia and Scottish companies and universities.”Scotland’s Energy Minister, Fergus Ewing said: “I am delighted that Nautricity, a Scottish tidal energy company, has signed this MoU with Fundy Tidal Inc. to deploy its innovative tidal technology at Petit Passage in the Bay of Fundy and develop a leading project in Nova Scotia.”“Scotland is a world leader in the developing market in wave and tidal stream energy. We are fortunate to have home grown technologies and excellent green energy resources and this is the type of cooperation and collaboration that is needed to drive the tidal stream industry forward globally.”Nautricity, a University of Strathclyde spin out company, is a tidal energy technology developer based in Glasgow, Scotland developing next generation tidal energy solutions. They have recently received full consenting for their tidal site at the Mull of Kintyre in southwest Scotland.Fundy Tidal is a community based tidal developer in Nova Scotia which has approval for 3MW of tidal COMFIT projects in Digby County.Press release, June 25, 2014; Image: Nautricitylast_img read more

US are repossessing more homes per head than the UK is building

first_imgStay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Subscribe now for unlimited access To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGINlast_img read more

Tsukuba Express close to ultimate electric braking system

first_imgINTRO: From autumn 2005, Tsukuba Science City will be directly linked to Akihabara station in the centre of Tokyo by a 58 km radial line now being built through the Greater Tokyo area. The opportunity to get even closer to ’pure’ regenerative braking is being seized, reserving friction brakes for parking and emergenciesBYLINE: Prof Satoru SoneDept of Electrical EngineeringKogakuin UniversityJAPAN HAS at least twice as many EMU cars in service as any other country by a wide margin – around 50000 ranging from the Shinkansen high speed fleet to metros and trams. There are even plans to use them for express container trains, and a prototype is already on test (RG 5.03 p265). Although friction brakes actuated by compressed air survive as the basic form of brake, more than 90% of the kinetic energy of electric trains in Japan is dissipated by electric braking, using the traction motors to generate power. Dynamic (rheostatic) braking became popular from the early 1950s, and field chopper control born in the late 1960s made it possible to use regenerative braking for stopping at stations. Up to that time, regenerative braking had been used exclusively for retarding trains descending steep gradients. The biggest breakthrough came in 1984 when 4500V gate turn-off thyristors became available. From that year onwards, almost all EMUs manufactured in Japan were fitted with AC motors and regenerative braking.The ’pure’ electric brakeIn the early days, electric brakes were unable to stop a train because the retarding torque of the motor falls to zero as the speed drops away. This required the substitution of friction braking at low speed.But the characteristics of the two brakes are quite different. Thanks to power electronics, an electric brake can precisely control the braking force. Friction brakes cannot, because the coefficient of friction varies by speed and surface condition. The response time of an electric brake is fast, but pneumatic brakes react slowly. Thus fading out electric braking and simultaneously blending in the air brake is not easy to synchronise, leading to longitudinal surges that affect riding comfort and sometimes result in wheel flats.It was in 1997 that I put forward a proposal to eliminate friction brakes from normal service braking by generating braking force electrically right down to a complete standstill. Most of the braking would be regenerative, but as this faded the traction motors would be powered in reverse, all as a single smooth operation. This was basically not a new idea because the technique was already being used to stop lifts smoothly and accurately.In a strict sense, ’pure electric braking’ means total regeneration. However, in normal operation a relatively high braking force is often applied at high speed. This is achieved electrically in the dynamic braking mode, thanks to the over-voltage capability of traction motors when operating as generators feeding resistor banks independent of the catenary voltage. Indeed, the highest traction motor voltage at braking is typically 2·5 times that of powering.This is very difficult to do economically when regenerating. In practice, the catenary voltage is typically only 15% higher in regenerative mode than it is in powering mode. This means that regenerative brake force at high speed would be less than half that of dynamic braking. Using the word ’pure’ in a broader sense, we tend to call any system that is effective down to standstill a pure electric brake, and these are rapidly gaining popularity.In 1997, Shin-Keisei Electric Railway Co began to develop this kind of pure electric brake with Mitsubishi Electric Corp and the University of Tokyo, where I was working at that time. Tests were very successful, and pure electric brakes have been used in revenue service since 1998.However, there remains a technical difficulty with this broader form of ’pure’ electric brake. Despite the fact that electric braking to a complete stop is widely used for lifts, a problem emerged in the rail application. Direction and speed measurements at very low speeds are difficult, because of the inferior rotary encoder used for trains in Japan. There are only 60 pulses per revolution compared to several hundred for more general use.It was found in due course that extrapolation of train speed from the 60 pulse detector, or even speed sensorless control using a reference model monitoring the input voltage and current of the traction motor could solve this problem. Today, all traction manufacturers in Japan are ready to supply a pure electric brake.Receptivity issuesTo avoid damaging on-board equipment by over-voltage, regenerated power has to be limited or ’squeezed’ to prevent the catenary voltage rising too high. In the early years of regenerative trains, squeezing characteristics were over-protective, as shown in Fig 1a. Up to line voltage V1 the regenerated line current remains constant at Imax, but above this limit the current is ramped down to zero at V2 and reversed to prevent the line voltage exceeding Vmax. The higher both V1 and V2 are, the more power can be regenerated within the limits of what on-board equipment can withstand. If all trains on the same line are similarly controlled by power electronics, the characteristics of V1 = V2 = Vmax as shown in Fig 1b can be used because ’powering off’ and ’regenerating off’ is slow enough and simultaneous. Thus regeneration can continue at Imax right up to the fringe of Vmax.If a rheostatically controlled train stops powering, typically in two steps, the voltage trajectory of a regenerating train goes much higher than Vmax as shown in Fig 1c. Similarly, the power balance between a combination of a long train of light powering and a short train of strong regeneration changes by powering off. The jerk rate (rate of change of deceleration) can be outside ride comfort limits and/or the voltage locus considerably exceeds Vmax.One effective countermeasure against an insufficiently receptive line is blending rheostatic and regenerative braking. The simplest way to achieve this is to add a chopper-controlled rheostat in parallel with the filter capacitor in a regenerative brake circuit, so that this rheostat absorbs power in excess of receptivity. A rather complicated circuit with sophisticated control can thus enlarge braking power beyond that of pure regenerative braking.Although it has not been tried in Japan, some attempts have been made to use flywheel energy storage either on the train or at the substations, for example on the London Underground (RG 4.01 p241).Power supply changesFig 2a shows the typical characteristics of a DC substation. As the power drawn by trains varies substantially and rapidly, as much as three times the rated current (usually for 1h) can be drawn for short periods. Nominal voltage regulation of typically 6% to 8% means that the voltage will drop by 20% at the substation during these peak current conditions. The no-load voltage is therefore set high – a typical value is 1620V for a nominal 1500V system.On the other hand, electrical equipment on trains can generally withstand 1800V. This means that Vmax in Fig 1a should be set at 1800V, but it is very difficult to transmit heavy regenerative current to a remote powering train under this voltage limit.Using phase-controlled thyristors to regulate the output voltage at the substation is one way of improving this situation. One example with the characteristics shown in Fig 2b proved effective, but mixed usage with adjacent non-controlled substations reduces effectiveness and brings difficulties in balancing the load between substations.To prevent regenerative current produced by trains from being squeezed because the voltage is too high it is neccessary to keep the circuit resistance between substations and trains as small as possible. However, the installation of return conductors parallel with the running rail is not practical because of track circuit issues, and total resistance per km can hardly be smaller than 30mlast_img read more

First Great Western awarded new franchise

first_imgUK: On October 3 the Department for Transport announced it had awarded incumbent First Great Western a new 23-month franchise to operate passenger services between London, southwest England and Wales.The agreement includes the roll out of free wi-fi for passengers, with priority given to long-distance routes, and local funding has been provided for the refurbishment additional sleeping cars to increase seasonal capacity between London and Cornwall. ‘I am also determined that we see further improvements during the lifetime of this contract’, said Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin. ‘More standard class and fewer first class seats on key services and the delivery of more electric trains for the Thames Valley.’ FirstGroup’s Great Western franchise had been due to expire in March 2013, but after the collapse of the InterCity West Coast refranchising process in October 2012 the competition for the replacement contract was cancelled pending the subsequent review of franchising policy. As a result, DfT exercised an option to extend FirstGroup’s previous franchise by 28 weeks to October 2013. Operation of Great Western services is being made more complicated by an extensive programme of route modernisation and future electrification, along with the planned delivery of new inter-city trains under the Intercity Express Programme. The new franchise announced on October 3 was directly awarded and will run until September 20 2015. DfT intends to hold an open competition for a long-term franchise of seven to 10 years in duration which is scheduled to start in July 2016. A further directly-awarded contract would be negotiated with FirstGroup to cover the interim period from September 2015 to July 2016; to comply with EU tendering rules this contract cannot be awarded now. The contract is the third to be directly awarded by DfT, following negotiations with Virgin Trains at InterCity West Coast and c2c for the Essex Thameside franchise. Negotiations with First Capital Connect are underway. In September DfT issued invitations to tender for the replacement Essex Thameside and combined Thameslink, Southern & Great Northern franchises. For detailed analysis of the UK rail sector subscribe to Rail Business Intelligencelast_img read more

Transport for London consults on Holborn capacity upgrade

first_imgUK: Transport for London is undertaking public consultation until November 17 on proposals to increase capacity at Holborn station on London Underground’s Central and Piccadilly lines. Handling 63 million passengers a year, Holborn is currently the 11th-busiest station on the LU network, and TfL estimates that by 2031 demand will increase by 20% in the morning peak and 29% in the evening peak. According to TfL, the proposed upgrade would increase the size of the station by 140%, including a new second entrance on Procter Street. Three new lifts would provide step-free access to both sets of platforms from the existing Kingsway entrance, which is to be expanded, and eight additional escalators would increase the total at the station to 15. Below ground, 700 m of new tunnels would be dug to improve interchange between the Central and Piccadilly line platforms. Additional concourse space would be provided by using one of the platforms disused since the closure of the Piccadilly Line branch to Aldwych in 1994. A new traction substation would be built for the planned increase in service frequency on the Central Line. TfL says that funding for the development of the Holborn upgrade ‘and to commence construction’ has been allocated in its business plan.last_img read more

World Bank: Remittances increased significantly in the Caribbean in 2018

first_imgThe World Bank says remittance flows into Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) grew by 10 per cent to US$88 billion last year supported by a strong United States economy.Mexico tops listThe Washington-based financial institution said Mexico continued to receive the most remittances in the region, posting about US$36 billion in 2018, up 11 per cent over the previous year.The bank said that remittances to low- and middle-income countries, such as those in the Caribbean, reached a record high in 2018, estimated at US$529 billion, an increase of 9.6 per cent over the previous record high of US$483 billion in the previous year.Global remittances, which include flows to high-income countries, reached US$689 billion in 2018, up from US$633 billion in 2017, the World Bank added.Expected to increase in 2019It said that for this year, remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries are expected to reach US$550 billion, to become their largest source of external financing.The global average cost of sending US$200 remained high, at around seven per cent in the first quarter of 2019, according to the World Bank’s Remittance Prices Worldwide database.Reducing remittance costs to three per cent by 2030 is a global target under the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)“Remittances are on track to become the largest source of external financing in developing countries. The high costs of money transfers reduce the benefits of migration. Renegotiating exclusive partnerships and letting new players operate through national post offices, banks, and telecommunications companies will increase competition and lower remittance prices,” said Dilip Ratha, lead author of the World Bank report.last_img read more